Zero Pollution Energy Technologies in 2022
Wind energy is one of the oldest sources of clean energy. It began to be widely used only in the 70s and 80s when the United States adopted several programs to encourage their use. In California, at the end of 1984, there were already 8469 wind turbines in operation, according to research. The total capacity of these units is about 550 MW. They were built in places with strong winds, grouped in the so-called "wind farms."
In 2022, wind turbines can be used to produce electricity individually or in ruptures, "called farms." Wind farms, which are currently fully automated, account for, for example, 1% of the electricity needed by California, i.e., 280 thousand homes. Wind turbines had some problems: significant changes in wind speed caused variations in electric current intensity, sometimes damaging transmission systems; the pallets collected residues, which reduced the yield. Such turbines can power the city of San Francisco at competitive prices with that produced by fossil fuel power plants. About 80 percent of the world's wind power is now made in California, but wind power is spreading across the American Midwest.
Solar energy didn’t enjoy successes like the wind one, but the gap is filled quickly and, so the prices continue to fall, it could compete with the power plants it has. There are already "thermal" solar systems - in which the sun's rays are used to overheat a fluid, which is then used to propel an electricity-generating turbine. It produces electricity at almost competitive prices. The most elegant form of solar energy remains the "photovoltaic" system, in which the power of sunlight is converted directly into electricity. It is a perfect form of energy: free, abundant, and completely non-polluting.
In 2022, photovoltaic systems can power anything from isolated villages to homes in urban centers. The panels can be fixed with bolts on the floor or the roof or shaped into curves by a pleasing shape. Devices rarely fail, and even if one breaks down, the others continue to work, either in the sun or under cloudy skies. Electricity obtained from the Sun by a photovoltaic system costs 2-5 times more than coal, oil, or natural gas.